Libmonster ID: MD-936
Author(s) of the publication: Mikhail ROLLER

The Workers ' Party and the People's Government of Romania show great concern for the development of historical science. The Institute of History in Bucharest and the Institute of History and Philology in Iasi were established, new branches of the Institute of History in Cluj were established, the museum of the "Revolutionary Struggle of the Romanian People", the "Romanian-Russian Museum" and historical museums were opened in the main centers of the country; the "Society of Historical and Philological Knowledge", which has branches throughout Romania, is working. historical magazine "Studios" and other periodicals.

In 1953 and 1954, a number of party documents were published that were of great importance for the development of historical science. Theses on the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the decisions of the enlarged plenum of the Central Committee of the Romanian Workers 'Party in August 1953, the report of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej at the Central Committee plenum in April 1954, the editorial article of the Central Committee of the Romanian Workers 'Party newspaper" Scinteia " on the activities of the Institute of History in Cluj important issues for historians. Guided by the instructions contained in these documents, Romanian historians launched a large activity.

At the session of the Department of Historical Sciences of the Academy of Sciences of the Romanian People's Republic, held in December 1953, the secretary of the department, Academician P. Constantinescu-Yash, summed up the results of work in the field of historical sciences. Reports and presentations were also heard.

Romanian chauvinist historians have written extensively about the Romanians from Macedonia, the Bug, etc., trying to justify the reactionary, aggressive policy of the bourgeois-landlord governments with their falsified research. Historians of the Romanian People's Republic, studying the past and present of their homeland, cover not only the history of the Romanian people themselves, but also other nationalities inhabiting the country.

Large-scale archaeological excavations are being conducted to explore the ancient history of Romania. Suffice it to say that in 1949-1954, 10 times more time was spent on archaeological excavations in the People's Republic of Romania than in the 50 years of the bourgeois-landlord regime. In 1953, archaeological excavations were conducted in Trusesti (Suciava region), Hlincea (Iasi region), Traian (Bacau region), Giulesti (Bucharest), and others, which provided material on the history of the primitive communal system. To study the slave-owning system, research continued on the Black Sea coast (Constanta region), Dacian settlements in Wallachia, Transylvania (Spantsov, Munchelului, etc.). Archaeological excavations were particularly widespread in Moresti, Targu, Mures (Hungarian Autonomous Region), Garvyn (Galac region), Suciava, Bucharest etc. Thanks to them, a number of issues related to the emergence and development of feudalism will be studied. The excavations are conducted under the supervision of Prof. G. Stefan, I. Nestor, K. Daikovich, E. Konduraki, R. Wolpe, I. Ferenczi, M. Sebastian, N. Horedt, K. Mitrya and other archaeologists. Monographs published: "Sarata Monteoru "(vol. I); " Archaeological materials "(vols. I and II) and others.

The history of Romania cannot be studied in isolation from the history of neighboring peoples. To further explore the problems of Romanian history, archaeologists and historians of the Romanian People's Republic study the history of the Slavs, the Kievan State, the Bulgarian state, etc. The study of the history of the indigenous population of Romania is supported by such sources as "The Word about Igor's Regiment", "The Tale of Bygone Years" and Soviet special literature.

Historians of the Middle Ages are working on the publication of a multi-volume collection "Documents on the history of Romania" (Moldova, Wallachia, Transylvania). Along with the selection and translation of documents, Romanian scientists discuss a number of fundamental issues related to their publication. In this respect, they were helped by valuable advice from specialists of the USSR, who were interviewed during a visit to the Soviet Union by Romanian academicians in 1951. Now 25 volumes of the collection have been published. Most of the documents in these volumes are written in Old Slavonic. Many historians take part in the compilation of the collection. The editorial board of the collection includes Prof. D. Prodai, Barbu T. Kimpina, Eugen Stanescu and others.

Documents on the modern history of Romania are published. Prepared 10 volumes up to-

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documents "The War of Independence of 1877-1878", of which 9 volumes were published. The materials included in these volumes attest to the close connection of the revolutionary circles of Romania with the revolutionary movement in Russia. These materials speak about the influence of Chernyshevsky's ideas on the revolutionary movement in Romania, about the links of Romanian revolutionary circles with the first workers ' unions in Russia, with revolutionary circles in Odessa, Nikolaev, and St. Petersburg. One of the letters mentions the surname of Stepan Khalturin (vol. I). Documents show that the works of Marx and Engels, in particular "Capital", penetrated Romania. One of the documents contains a request to send this work of Marx in Russian. We can now say with good reason that in the second half of the ' 70s the ideas of scientific socialism were increasingly penetrating the revolutionary circles of Romania, although utopians, narodniks, and anarchists were still very influential. Marxist ideas found their way to Romania, in particular, through Russian revolutionary circles; the Romanian labor movement was influenced by the Emancipation of Labor group and the Union of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class. The influence of German and Austrian social-democrats also penetrated Romania.

Romanian historians pay serious attention to the study of Romanian-Russian relations. Archaeological excavations led by Prof. Ionashka, Lazarescu and others were discovered by Slavic settlements of the 9th century in the center of Bucharest. Excavations in Garvyn (Galac) under the supervision of Prof. G. Stefan and I. Barnya proved the connection with the Kievan state in the X-XI centuries. Academician P. Constantinescu-Yash has prepared a work covering cultural relations between Romania and Russia in the Middle Ages; Candidate of Historical Sciences S. Vianu examines the influence of the Russo-Turkish war of the XVIII century on the liberation struggle of the Romanian people; Professor S. Stirbu established the connection of the participants of the Romanian uprising of 1821, led by T. Vladimirescu, with the Decembrists. V. Keresteciu, V. Machiu and other historians have collected materials that testify to the influence of the Russian labor movement on the labor movement in Romania. V. Ratsa, I. Gheorghiu, G. Haupt, L. Baniai, A. Roman, F. Rusu, P. Nikita and other historians study the struggle of the working class and the Communist Party of Romania. The Institute of Party History under the Central Committee of the Romanian Workers ' Party is doing a great deal of work in this direction, and a special report should be devoted to its activities.

The achievements of Soviet historians are of great importance for the development of historical science in Romania. Before the liberation of Romania, Soviet historical literature was rarely available, and many Romanian historians were not familiar with it. Now the works of Soviet historians are widely distributed in Romania. Many of them have been translated into Romanian. The Romanian-Soviet Research Institute with a history department was established at the Academy of Sciences.

The work of Romanian historians takes place in the context of class struggle. Some old historians try to hinder the success of progressive historical science, but most scientists honestly serve the interests of the people, try to master Marxist theory and help the growth of young cadres. Lively discussion of issues, creative discussions, criticism and self-criticism contribute to solving a number of problems and improving the level of scientific work. The nature of the Dhaka State was discussed at the December 1953 session of the Department of Historical Sciences. Most archaeologists and historians have argued in favor of the view that the Dacian state was slaveholding in nature, but many specific questions about the history of this state have remained unclear. The issues of the transition to feudalism, the time of the emergence of the capitalist system in Romania, the formation of the Romanian bourgeois nation, and the struggle of the working class and the Communist Party of Romania are actively discussed.

A critical article on the textbook "History of Romania", published in the organ of the Central Committee of the party "Lupta de clasa", was of great help to historians. While giving a positive assessment to the textbook, the journal also noted a number of its mistakes and shortcomings. He pointed out, in particular, that it was necessary to cover more deeply the economic history of Romania, to show more widely the struggle of the peasantry and the working class, the activities of the Communist Party and the success of the Romanian workers in building socialism.

Academician Mikhail Roller (Romanian People's Republic).


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Mikhail ROLLER, Historical science abroad. ABOUT THE WORK OF ROMANIAN HISTORIANS // Chisinau: Library of Moldova (LIBRARY.MD). Updated: 12.06.2024. URL: (date of access: 17.07.2024).

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