by Andrei BOGERUK, Dr. Sc. (Biol.), Federal Selection and Genetics Center of Aquaculture, Fish-Breeding and Oceanography, Moscow; Zhanna DERGALEVA, department head; Alexander YEFIMOV, Cand. Sc. (Biol.)
The percentage of aquaculture in the overall volume of the world's fish industry has climbed from 3.9 percent to 29 percent in the past 30 years. Since the mid-1980s the annual increment of aquacultural products has been averaging 8 percent, with the volume of catches in natural bodies of water remaining level in practical terms. The UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) forecasts that by the year 2030 the breeding of hydrobionts (aquatic organisms) will be as productive as catches from native hydrobionic populations. What about the situation in this country?
Over many years aquaculture has been relegated to a secondary role here largely due to large volumes offish catches in seas and oceans. But lately the catches have dropped to 3 - 3.3 mln tons annually, while the percentage of fish bred on aqua farms is still about 5 percent of the total output and something like 0.2 to 0.3 percent of the produce of global aquaculture industry.
GROUNDS FOR OPTIMISM
And yet our country has a high potential for the development of aquaculture. We have a large number of freshwater ponds and off-shore sea water areas coupled with diverse climatic conditions. All this accounts for a wealth of our ichthyofauna (fish population), including its most valued species. Of the world's 26 sturgeon species eleven are found in Russia.
"Home-grown" fish is much in demand because of relatively low costs. The same is true of costly sturgeon, salmon and common white fish, and of oysters and mussels, though not a traditional diet of our people. All this provides favorable conditions for the further development offish-farming. Our biologists and ichthyologists have come up with original methods and techniques for fish breed ... Читать далее