Libmonster ID: MD-959
Author(s) of the publication: Aemilius Blossius Dracontius

Aemilius Blossius Dracontius

TRAGOEDIA ORESTIS

Translated from ancient Greek and comments by V. N. Yarkho *

In the crackle of the funeral pyre, she became a friend to her husband.

Her unholy sanctity, the sweetness of love commanded

445

to wish for a bitter end, for the wounds inflicted by sorrow,

the firelight was lighter, and the remedy was brutal.,

together with the marital ashes, she immediately went to the manas.

The urn contained only two lovers who were burned together.

That's where the happy marriage was! That's a reliable sign of loyalty!

450

A blasphemous husband was chosen after the death of his wicked wife.;

the flame served as a friend, the bonfire was their wedding hall.

452

What is holy love, many virgins have shown.

541

Let it be in sacred love, engulfed in the flames of revenge,

the son will pay for the murder of his father with a fatal blow

mother, - this will wash away her suspicions 127 he is in the past,

for he will prove that the true son will avenge his father,

545

an avenger worthy of treason, a punisher and heir to the kingdom.

We are kind to the Danaians, but they hate us fiercely;

go with equal courage: there will be sympathy with you

* Ending. For the beginning, see VDI. 2000. N 3. p. 208.

Wash - 's suspicions that he was not born of Agamemnon. Wed. 590 and Sen. Th. 326-330. Something similar was said by Ausonius (Duodec. Caes. 18: 4) about the emperor Commodus: "By his crimes he exposed the treason of his mother," i.e., he showed that Faustina did not give birth to him from the emperor-philosopher Marcus Aurelius.

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loyal slaves; rather, they are indignant that you go late;

the servants have been grumbling for a long time, ready to bite with their teeth

550

at least kill Aegisthus alive and throw him into the fire to burn

the sinful members of the criminal spouse are immediately thirsty."

So he said, and their quiet sleep was interrupted by groans.

Immediately descendant of Atreides, taught by a vision, Pylades

if he wants to tell you his dream, he will tell you about the same thing from him

555

and in amazement comes from the power of the father, which is able to simultaneously

to appear to both of them in the stillness of the night with instructions.

"Brother," he says, " what do you advise us to do now?"

The heart, and the thoughts, and the soul in the chest, and the mind, and the feelings

my duty confuses, excitement, sadness, nature, reverence,

560

origin, sorrow, and shame, and fear of rumor.

Dare I plunge the deadly sword into the womb of my mother,

that ten months 129 small embryo conceived by nature,

the initial pledge of a blossoming affectionate life,

tormented by growing torment, with persistent patience worn?

565

The womb that gave me light and opened the gates of peace?

Only I was given the birthright by fate,

from the mother's breast milk flow is abundant

my lips flowed like honey or sweet-smelling nectar.

The mother became a wet nurse, and the queen became a servant,

570

sleep forgetting, their tender feelings for me expresses.

My mother was my father, too, while he was away fighting, -

This was how I grew up in my parents ' house for eleven years.

Must I now forget my mother's blessings?

Will the murdered father not be avenged?

575

Let the shepherd wash away the crime and die, so I say in blood

I'll sate my father's money, but I won't touch my mother at all;

Let life after Aegisthus's death be her punishment,

let him fall before her eyes, let the wanton be dead

she sees her lover , just as Atreida saw him killed."

580

So he said doubtfully, but he was not slow to answer

his friend; a heavy breath from the depths of his chest echoing,

with a savage gnashing of teeth it fell upon Orestes:

"Your heart is so melted by 132 worthless feelings,

what you are ready to do, which is impossible to say!

585

It is a great sin to speak, and a sinful crime to listen.

Or shall we go to Mycenae of Argolis to deliver them?

mother of perfect guilt? Of course, it is more worthy of forgiveness

there is no one more worthy of punishment for two crimes!

My friend, please beware of deceiving the Danaians ' hopes,

590

so as not to be considered an outsider of a person who allowed

a parricide to stay alive. Or the shadow that appeared

What now for us... What should I do? - 128 Orestes ' monologue recalls the hesitation of Althea, who wants revenge on her son Meleager for the murder of her brothers: Ovid. Metam. VIII. 472-512.

Ten months. In ancient times, the gestation period was calculated by lunar months. Cf. Ovid. Metam. VIII. 500; F. III. 124; Stat. Theb. I. 576-578.

All eleven years. - 130 Going to Troy. Agamemnon left Orestes as an infant. Cf. Eurip. Iph. A. 621-624.

with a screech... zubovny. - From 131 Wed. Verg. Aen. III. 664; VIII. 230; X. 718; everywhere at the beginning of the verse.

Melted. - 132 The verb tepesco (usually in the intransitive sense) can mean both "to warm" and"to cool". If we accept (as in our translation) the first meaning, we should refer the words Pylades to Clytemestra: Orestes succumbed to useless feelings of compassion for the murderer of his father. In the second sense (as some researchers understand), the verb should be attributed to Agamemnon: compassion for his mother cooled Orestes ' thirst for revenge.

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at night in Athens to you, will not find by birthright

new hundreds of roads? And here she is on the doorstep

she sat down and, disturbing the stars, said in a trembling voice::

595

"So, my son, you are ready to protect your father from the villains,

this is how you should mourn a dead parent.,

so will you make an avenger-worthy sacrifice to our manas?"

Your stepfather will want to die a similar death himself,

if only she was still alive, who is the shadow of a brutal killer?

600

as an offering, the merciful one will give the soul of Orestes.

You will fall a victim yourself, if the mother does not become a victim."

What will you do when your father makes a sad speech?

To spare the pitiful - to gain piety, to lose piety.

Let the bodies of the guilty fall to the ground at the tomb of Father 134!

605

Get to the point! Let the king's share open to young hopes,

the spirit will ascend with valor and the heart with desire for glory,

loyalty in your hands let the cruel put iron, -

cut off both their necks, interrupting their last moan!

I will willingly follow you through the spears, through the flames 135 ,

610

I will not be afraid of anyone, for your servants are devoted to your father.

I will, however, give you some clever, useful, and reliable advice:

I'll go on a reconnaissance mission 137 and I'll be able to use a secret suggestion

give the servants hope of your coming, and if they believe

I have a crowd of household members, then they will give themselves to us with all their heart

615

and they will take up arms, so it will be safer."

Speech so inflamed 138, heaves in bitter sorrow

young Orestes, indignant and threatening the wicked with death

(biting his lips, the growl of a ferocious soul is overpowering),

and, as if Aegisthus had caught a crime on the spot. -

620

with the mother of the adulterer in shameful embrace entwined -

he pierces them without seeing them, even though there are no dead ones.

So raged Pyrrhus 139, seeing in the dead of night

the ghost of Achilles, appealing to the feelings of his sons;

he realized as he pushed away the dream that Eakid's shadow demanded.

625

Three are hostile, sacrificing a virgin to Polyxena.

In short, since Orestes approved of Pylades ' proposal,

in the heart, determination is nurtured only by relying on swords 140 .

The path is laid along secret paths leading to Mycenae,

in the darkness lurk, go, hiding their secret thoughts,

630

so that their unexpected revenge will overtake the criminal forces.

...141 Once upon a time Ulysses, sharing a dangerous path with Diomedes,

The idea is that Aegisthus would have been willing to die if only Clytemestra had survived and killed Orestes herself.

tombs of my father. - At 134 Wed. 762-774.

I'll go through the spears, through the flames. - 135 Page 813; Verg. Aen. II. 664: "Through spears, through flames." A similar image ("through the spears, through the enemy ranks") - Verg. Aen. II. 527; Sil. Ital. IV. 459: "... through the spears, through the ranks of the enemy, he rushes."

They are devoted to you - 136 that is, to Agamemnon and Orestes.

I'm going to investigate. This plan remains unfulfilled, as the young men meet Dorilaus, who prepares the Mycenaeans for their arrival (667-676).

Orestes ' reaction, which Pylades' arguments were able to convince more than the appearance of his father's shadow. As you can see, Dracontius is willing to sacrifice verisimilitude for the sake of theatrical effect-another argument in favor of the fact that the author expected a public recitation of certain parts of the poem (see note. to the title).

So did Pyrrhus. - See 476-482 and note. There, however, the shadow of Achilles demanded the sacrifice of Polyxena, rising from the grave. Here she appears to Pyrrhus in a dream, a variant known from Quintus of Smyrna (XIV. 179-245).

Relying only on swords, - 140 i.e. leaving all other armor: spears, shields, etc.

Ibid. ... so. - 141 See 265-269 and approx. We are talking about the night exploration of Odysseus (Ulysses) and Diomedes.

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I went to the camp at night by the dangerous Dardan road,

I walked to the side (we didn't hear any familiar sounds in the air

trumpet-like omens, but tread carefully,

635

in silence, almost without breathing, they went further and further away

from the ships of the Argolid scouts-son of the Oinei

the brave and with him Laertides, the hero Ulysses the cunning).

Similarly, Athenian youths secretly sought Mycenae.

They are still making their way, when suddenly the tutor of Orestes

640

Dorilai appears to them, throwing them both into a frenzy.

"Young men, who are you and where are you coming from?

Where are you going?" And, so far, frozen in silence,

They are trying to turn off the road, Orestes ' tutor finds out

she pulls him into a hug, wrapping her arms around his neck.

645

"Are you alive, child? - exclaims. "If he's alive, then we're still alive."

alive. We succumbed to guile, while the lover was proud,

he was drowning in luxury, having desecrated his mother's bed;

I was glad that the temples of triumphs 142, kings of mighty chambers,

and the altars of all the gods, and the royal bedchambers

650

he has made a low-grade lupanar by his crime.

We only had to go to our father's grave 143 ,

weep forever, even though we remembered the tsar's promises,

And even earlier, Cassandra Prophecies 144: soon to be found

due retribution will overtake. So, hurry up, O friends,

655

as befits the Athenians; the gods will help you;

the king's servants cry out: execute these criminals.

Without hesitation, heroes, with your courage ignite your spirit,

arm yourself with swords, squeeze harder than the hilt;

duty to your father may move you, a sense of friendship-Pylada,

660

let sadness guide one, and the desire for glory guide the other.

145 Putting the missing woman down all at once,

how much time does it take to break a peasant's body?"

So the old man told them. And friends are fueled by hope,

the pace is quickened, and everyone grieves that Mycenae is far away.

665

"You see, we're still on our way, old man," is how Orestes responds.

"Step up," Pylad says, and then to Dorilai:

"Starche, you go first, we are both in a hurry for you,

so that the household, by hearing perceived a precious secret,

we lived with the hope for three days that we would suddenly descend."

670

When he had finished, the elder left his friends and went to town first;

joy accelerates the steps that age hinders.

That's already passed the way; the charter, it reaches the Kremlin,

secretly informs a few that Orestes is alive and for his family

the avenger grozny will return here in the near future;

675

everyone is strongly requested to remain firmly silent,

see II. X. 272-298 and II. Lat. 697-702:

Now the last third of the night was silent,

how, on the orders of the Danaians, he went out of the camp to reconnoiter

The Aetolian husband, the hero Diomedes, taking Ulysses with him,

so that together with him under the cover of a silent shady night

carefully find out where the confidence of Teucers comes from,

what they do, what forces they prepare for battle.

Athenian youths. - See 534 and approx.

Temples of the triumphs- 142 an anachronism; of course, the Roman procedure for bringing to the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol a share of the loot that was carried after the winner in a triumphal procession. See 26 and approx.

Coming to my father's grave. - 143 p. 456-459.

Tsarev's promises... Cassandra's prophecies. - 144 See 146-150; 511-513.

Labor is small. - 145 Wed. 190.

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only to the slaves slowly opening the cherished secret.

And so it happened that everyone could know about the upcoming meeting,

except for criminals, so that they can't hide

or defend your life by taking up arms in dirty hands.

680

Waiting for the master of the slaves: part is ready to take the gate,

These are the palace, and some of them are very high walls.

The day, meanwhile, is golden in the rasp of waves 146.,

like a bequeathed gift, after a night's sleep.;

the sun shines, paying for the damage done to Tiest 147 .

685

The walls were seen by Atreides, who had once left 148 as a child ,

he remembered them, however, and, stretching out his hand, said: :

"Greetings to the ancient House, greetings to you, native Mycenaeans!

You were cursed before, but you will be honored again,

if I feed my father's mana with my mother's blood.

690

The royal imperious shadow recognizes the avenger as a son,

seeing Clytemestra thrown to the ground by a powerful blow. , -

just as the wife of the Prophet Amphiarai died."

He has finished, and with trepidation the wanderer looks at the high walls;

He remembers the old way; Pylades follows him.

695

After entering, a crowd of household members will recognize you

the face of Agamemnon 151 in it, eyes, and gait, and hands,

they greet us with joyful weeping, and exult with silent hope.

"Let them close the gates," Pylades said to Orestes.

The entrance is barred, and the trumpets of Death are blaring loudly.

700

Criminals are numb, fear embraces Aegisthus.

"Didn't I promise 152 Danites eternal peace?

There is no one in Argolis who would threaten us with war,

If Hector is already killed, Troy is defeated with weapons.", -

thus spake the queen to the servants, mad with rage.

705

"I'm letting you go, just let me grow old with Aegisthus."

Speech equips with threats, as if the avenger is ferocious;

here, panting, runs the maid with ominous news,

she says: "Orestes has appeared"; they do not immediately believe her words,

they are full of doubts, they believe that their dream is empty.

710

Here in the palace, Pylades appears embittered,

harsh (Ajax Telamonides was implacable to the enemy and formidable 153 ,

with Hector going out to fight, hiding behind a seven-skinned shield),

cursing on the lips and a threat in the eyes, and a drawn sword

it sparkles brightly. The culprit shouts: "Driving cruelly,

In the screech of waves- 146 rubbing against the axis of the chariot of the Sun, 803 el. Wed. Stat. Silvae. II. 7. 27: "And from the turning of the wheels you hear the grating."

Damage done to Tiest. - 147 See 491-493 and approx.

I left it as a child. - 148 See 285, 572, 694.

Stretch out your hand, he said. - 149 Cf. Verg. Aen. II. 688; X. 667; Stat. Theb. VIII. 146.

Clytemestra- 150 konektura Mahly (Anonymi Orestis Tragoedia emendatiorem edidit J. Mahly. Lipsiae, 1866). In rcp A and B is the name of Eriphila, which appears in the text most likely from a marginal gloss to V. 692, where Amphiarai is mentioned - a soothsayer who knew that the seven's campaign against Thebes was doomed to failure. However, he was forced to give in to the insistence of his wife Eriphila, bribed by Polynices, and join the campaign in which he died. His son Alcmaeon avenged his father by killing his mother. See Stat. Theb. IV. 187-213; Paus. V. 17. 7 sl.; IX. 41.2; Apold. III. 6. 2; 7. 5; Hyg. 73.

The face of Agamemnon. - 151 Wed. Verg. Aen. III. 490: "Same eyes, same face, same hands, same curls"; Sen. Tgo. 464-466.

Didn't I promise? Since Clytemestra excludes the possibility of an outside attack (702), she takes the actions of the servants as a signal for the beginning of an uprising. Hence her promise to set the slaves free.

153 St. 711. - Wed. Drac. Ach. 104. On the single combat of Ajax Telamonides, armed with his famous seven-skinned shield, with a Hectare, see II. VII. 206-232; II. Lat. 611: "He reflects a terrible blow with his seven-skinned shield."

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715

they always hoped to keep the power and deserved punishment

avoid it altogether? No, you can't get away with just one death at once 154 -

in the torments of blood, it is given to atone for the crimes of the past!".

He also spoke to the servants, calling them to revenge:

"Overthrow at once the villain from the high royal throne,

720

for the feet of 155 victims of the cruel Atreides-drag the king;

let the bloodthirsty axes cut the peasant's body 156 ,

and may the shepherd die the same death that the king was destroyed!

But let him first water my hand with his own blood."

He spoke and, drawing his sword, thrust Aegista between the ribs.

725

157 Feet tied with rope , servants drag the slain body

and beyond the gate, where the slain Atreides stretched, -

a thousand sharp axes are used to break his bones,

and, dismembered by wounds, pathetically tremble joints.

And Climetemestra, believing that death has given up on her,

730

that her son had spared her, she lamented her shepherd;

suddenly before her - Orestes, the enemy of any fiercer,

servants crowd after him, ready for the murder of the native;

the mother grabs her braids and the son drags her, exclaiming::

"True," you hoped, " he will reign with impunity."

735

Your cursed lover, and I thought to my father's grave

How many children should I add 158 ? You were wrong: I am alive, and you will die

by a bloody death, criminal, and under my hand

your body will cover the husband of the murdered bones with your 159!"

A mother with a bare breast begged her son in dismay:

740

"For the sake of the teats that suckled you, spare me, boy!

In the name of the highest gods, and of your father and sister, dear to you,

the one who, out of our rage, stole you and hid you then,

In the name of your friend Pylades, who is dear to you, I conjure you:

mother have pity, I beg you, I'm sorry, have pity, if the name of

745

But I still deserve to wear it!" Son in response: "In vain

you wear out your tears 161: the father is waiting in the midst of underground shadows.

The virgin Cassandra mourned the death of her master the Trojan 162 ;

and she did not strike him down, becoming a servant after Hector's death,

Pyrrha Raba Andromache 163, once a Phrygian queen;

750

you preferred the shepherd and shed the blood of the king and his wife.

This is what Pylades tells me to do and what my sister urges me to do 164 :

having tasted wild courage 165, may you fall under my terrible sword."

The wife sees that she will not be able to get mercy from her son:

the predictions of the Phrygian prophetess 166 quickly come to mind .

You can't get away with just one death right away. - 154 p. 478 p., 727 p., 906-909.

For the legs. - 155 Wed. 349.

A peasant's body. - 156 p. 662.

Feet tied with a rope. - 157 Sr. 526.

Share add children. - 158 Pages 350-352.

You will cover your body with your own. - 159 Wed. 762.

Mother with bare breasts. - 160 p. 567-569. Common place in the depiction of the murder of Clytemestra: Aesch. Cho. 896-898; Eurip. El. 1206-1207; Or. 526-529, 566-570; Anth. Pal. IX. 126.

You're wasting your tears. - 161 Cp. Stat. Theb. II. 655 (literally).

The virgin Cassandra wept. - 162 The tradition does not know anything like this. See, on the contrary, 3 sl, and approx.

I didn't hit it... Andromache- 163 who became a concubine of Pyrrhus after the capture of Troy. See Eurip. Andr. 12-25; Tro. 272-274, 568-600, 658-678; Verg. Aen. III. 325-329.

Sister compels. - 164 Wed. Elektra's active role in prompting Orestes to action: Aesch. Cho. 429-433, 445-450; Eurip. El. 647-668, 963-984. Similar argument: Drac. Hel. 535.

Savage courage tasted- 165 when killing Agamemnon: 234-264.

Predictions of the Phrygian prophetess. - 166 See 146-150.

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755

"If it pleases you to avenge your father 167 on both of us,

then let Pylades hand mow me down and the sword is the same,

that Aegisthus also mowed down; let me fall on his body,

our instigator of guilt and participant in 168 of all crimes;

our blood, mixed together, will be a witness to all the shadows,

760

that the crimes of accomplices are waiting for a common sinister lot."

"Do you want to cover up your depraved body dead 169 , -

The son says, " but you'd better fall on your spouse's bones.";

don't let the blood mix under the sword of thunder,

may there not be redemption in death for both lovers, -

765

let each one of you receive his share of the reward,

punish the guilty who bound you: you will lie separately",

He said; approaching his father's grave, he continues his speech:

"Father, worthy of reverence, devoid of feelings and breath,

I offer you a gift 170-accept a fair sacrifice;

770

I lead Clytemestra, Matron of Aegisthus 171, to the slaughter,

before yours (if it weren't so!). There is one consolation 172 :

there it will lie, where you perished, slain by the axe.

Late comes retribution - my age is an excuse;

I'd like to have done it before." Adds the Danaean mother:

775

"Sun, celestial axis, elements, earth, sea, rivers,

the common mother of all things is nature 173, the subterranean womb,

everyone, see how the son got even with his mother.,

I paid my debt for the birth, I paid for the milk."

So she spoke, but to the deaf man.:

780

the face is turned away by Orestes, faithful to filial duty.

Here again the sun is good the horses are diverted from the path 174 ,

and the sky is covered with a gloomy airy shadow;

in fear of the night at the wrong time all Hellas freezes,

chaos frightens nature 175, elements are afraid of darkness;

785

praises Enyo's guilt, Erinia 176 draws her sword.

Purple cloak biting his clenched teeth,

the queen has fallen and pulls the tunic lower with her hands,

to the very feet of 177, fearing not to meet death naked:

with a sad face she cast confused glances everywhere,

790

in the hour of death for the first time, now only dreading the shame,

If it pleases you. 167 .. - Same beginning of verse: Drac. Hyl. 52.

The instigator and the participant. - 168 See 164-219.

His depraved body. - 169 Orestes refuses this request to his mother, in contrast to the image in Aeschylus (Cho. 894-895, 904-907, 973), where he deliberately kills traitors one by one. See also almost literal repetitions: 738-762, 757-761, 759-763.

170 that is, the blood of the doomed Clytemestra.

Matrona- 171 anachronism, full of sarcasm: the Romans associated the name of matrona with the idea of dignity and marital fidelity.

There is one consolation - 172 for the murdered tsar.

Elements... the common mother of all things - nature- 173 concepts borrowed from late natural philosophy (in particular, from the poem of Lucretius) and are an obvious anachronism in the mouth of Clytemestra. Cf. also Drac. Ach. 117. Compare this address itself with the words of Prometheus in Aeschylus ' tragedy of the same name, v. 88-92.

Again the sun deflects the horses. - 174 Wed. 492 sl.

Chaos scares nature. - 175 Cf. literally; Lucan. V. 634.

Enyo. - 176 See 498 and approx. Erinia, according to tradition, here is already preparing for the persecution of Orestes, although in the future it does not play any role.

He pulls on the tunic with his hands. - 177 Cp. Eurip. Nes. 568-570 (about Polyxene); Ovid. Metam. XIII. 479 ate. (about her); F. II. 833 cf. (about Lucretia); Suet. Caes. 82. To the very feet. - Cf. literally: Verg. Aen. I. 404; Prudent. Psych. 634: "The dress, falling down, hides the legs securely."

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I felt shame, unhappy, whom I did not know before.

Its white limbs are stained with crimson blood 178 ,

the body from the wounds inflicted was beating, trampling the sand 179 ,

and, condemned to death, life poured out with the blood of the dead .

795

Then the avengers rush together to the king's chambers, -

so return to the den of lions with a dark red mane,

terrible, meat of cattle slaughtered enough tasted.

The Royal Palace welcomes friends spattered with blood;

Danaians come together, giving them royal honor 181 ;

800

part of him feels sorry for Atreides, the other for the poor mother,

however, no one openly blamed the perpetrators of the murder,

and there was no one without words of condemnation to Aegisthus.

The desecrated day has passed, submerged in hissing waves 182

the sun on the axles of her chariot; sister 183 has returned,

805

Dewy spread her cloak, summoning sleeping pills to the calm;

the stars have reached the middle of their nocturnal path 184 , -

A messenger came that Pyrrhus, a descendant of Achilles, had kidnapped,

like a captured war booty, Hermione 185 .

Like a madman, Atreides addressed Pylades as follows::

810

"Another thing is calling us, again the love flame 186 !

What should I do? The fault is obvious: the bride is younger

she was promised to me as my wife , and then she was kidnapped. Rule my kingdom,

I will pass through swords, through fire, through cohorts of 187 without counting

(the one who marked for the father, must respect himself),

815

If only I could save the virgin who calls Orestes to glory!"

He spoke; he girded on his sword and took up arms against the enemy.

He found Pyrrhus entering the sacred temple of Apollo;

suddenly attacks a young man, near the altar 188 strikes

and he returns to the Greeks' 89, proud of the repeated murder.

820

Orestes holds his father's throne and his father's crown, -

the mother appeared before his eyes; she is not defenseless:

178 524.

179 Page 264.

Life poured out with blood. - 180 Wed. (literally) Ovid. Metam. II. 610; Anth. Lat. I. 1, 10 (retelling the scene of Dido's suicide from the fourth book of the Aeneid); II. Lat. 515 ("with hot blood he pours out his life").

Giving them royal honor. Although Orestes alone is entitled to such honors in Mycenae, Pylades shares them both as his closest friend and as Agamemnon's nephew.

182 See 682 and approx.

Sister, - 183 i.e. the moon leading the night. The twins Apollo and Diana in antiquity quite early began to be associated with the Sun and Moon. See 97 and note; Sen. Ag. 837-840.

184 Cp. Verg. Aen. IV. 524.

Pyrrhus... kidnapped him... Hermione. The rivalry between Orestes and Pyrrhus for Hermione, the daughter of Helen and Menelaus. it is covered in different sources in different ways. In Od. IV. 5-9, the report that Menelaus gives his daughter in marriage to Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus), to whom she was promised at Troy, is not accompanied by any dramatic details. In the sequel, the prevailing theory is that Hermione was betrothed to Orestes or married to him, but Neoptolemus took her away from her husband, referring to the promise of Menelaus and to the madness that Orestes fell into after killing his mother. The latter, being cleansed of bloodshed, arranged the murder of Neoptolemus in the temple of Delphi and took possession of Hermione (Eurip. Andr. 968-1008, 1061-1166, 1243-1247; Verg. Aen. III. 327-332; Apold. Epit. VI. 13 el.; Hyg. 123). Dracontius does not delve into the background of the question and introduces this plot only in order to find the accuser of Orestes in the person of Molossus, who should replace Erinius. Like prey. - See Ovid. Her. V1II. 81-82.

Another matter calls. - 186 Cp. almost verbatim: Slat. Achill. 539. The love flame again. "Does this mean Orestes' love for the stolen bride, or Pyrrhus ' love for the stolen bride?"

Through the swords. - 187 p. 609. Cohorts. - modernism: this was the name of a military unit only in the Roman army.

Near the altar. The murder of Pyrrhus in a sacred place adds to the guilt of Orestes; however, Pyrrhus himself was guilty of killing Priam at the home altar (Verg. Aen. II. 547-553).

Goes back to the Greeks. - 189 as if the murder didn't happen on Greek territory!

page 225

torches in the hands of 190 of her, girded with snakes menacingly;

824

bringing the flame closer to Orestes, the serpents that have developed their rings,

823

he's throwing missiles right in his face, making death threats 191 .

825

Znamenya husband frighten, runs through the palace halls,

mother, terrifying, behind him; in the most remote chambers of the house

Orestes is looking for shelter, but even there his enemy overtakes him.

Soon all the doors are bolted with strong bolts; again

in the deepest parts of the palace, he finds his mother.

830

With a terrible voice, she, with the effort of: "Cruel, unfit,

It is not enough for you that you have deeply buried filial feelings,

it is necessary to desecrate sacred temples with a criminal hand.?

You can use an iron hook to lock the gate unbreakably,

cover hundreds of windows, if there are so many, with solid steel, -

835

Everywhere I will be with you even more ferocious shadow,

in the waves of the sea, in the fields, in the forests, in the mountains, or in the rivers."

Quoth Orestes; the flame of torches stirs Orestes ' heart.

He can't escape his mother's curses,

his sword is enough, but the air cuts with frequent blows 193 ,

840

no wounds are inflicted, and he drops his hand helplessly

and the unfortunate man exclaims: "Here is my bloody sword,

you are smitten with it, you wanton woman-you will be killed a second time!"

Said the grim shadow, recognizing the murder weapon,

194 disappeared in the light air , and Orestes ' madness remained.

845

Full of madness is the heir of Atreides, the avenger of Argos, -

thus was Lycurgus mad , intoxicated by the frenzied Bacchus,

thus was Alcydes mad, terrified by the ferocious Shrew,

so was Ajax 197 , the bravest of the Greeks, once mad.

Orestes 198 rushes with a roar, not in himself, through the palace chambers,

850

He mistakes servants for his mother, mistakes friends for his mother,

(he sees his mother everywhere, and snakes and flames with her.),

he runs away from some, and immediately meets others 199;

only Pylades face does not frighten a mad friend,

Among the treats of the rich, the royal meals of the worthy,

855

his hunger torments him, and the lights turn him away from the table.

Mother to him... yavilasya. - 190 In Aeschylus (Eum. 94-139), the ghost of Clytemestra appears to the sleeping Eriniam. Dracontius, removing them, presents Clytemestra in their guise, girded with snakes and with torches in her hands. Cf. Verg. Aen. IV. 471-473.

191 st. 823 follows 824 in rcp A, and this order of verses should be recognized as more natural both in meaning and grammatical construction.

Desecrate sacred temples. - 192 See 817 and approx. Strictly speaking, Clytemestra should not care about Orestes ' behavior after her murder, and this reproach was introduced again so that Molossus could accuse Orestes of both crimes.

193 Page 268.

194 sight of his sword!

Lycurgus- 195 king of the Edonians, who did not want to recognize Bacchus and was punished for this by madness: intoxicated by god, he tried to possess his mother and killed his wife and children (Hyg. 132, which is the source of Dracontium here). Another version is Apold. III. 5.4.

Alkyd - 196 Hercules. Juno, who hated him out of jealousy as the son of Jupiter, sent a fit of madness upon him through the fury Megera, during which he killed his wife and children (cf. Here. fur. 1-124, 953-1053; the model for him was Euripides 'tragedy " Heracles", where, however, the eclipse of reason sends Lissa - the personified madness to Heracles, v. 833-873). Cf. Lucan. I. 576 cf., in which the example of Hercules is also preceded by the example of Lycurgus.

Ajax- 197 After the armor of the slain Achilles was awarded to Odysseus, the offended Ajax decided to kill the perpetrators of such a sentence Agamemnon and Menelaus, but Athena damaged his mind, and he killed a herd of cattle in a frenzy. Unable to bear the shame, Ajax committed suicide. See Sophocles ' tragedy Ajax; Apold. Epit. V. 6; Hyg. 107.

- The madness of Orestes is depicted quite realistically, without any interference from Erinius.

Alone... others, - 199 i.e. servants and friends.

page 226

The sinner in the underworld is so tormented by hunger 200 in vain:

sees sumptuous viands, as if at a sumptuous feast,

groans - but there is no more food, only the image of it remains,

the fury viciously prevents the food from touching the desired one.

860

What should he do? What gods should I invoke in my prayers?

Or disturb the underworld with your misfortune?

Everyone sympathizes with the young man, the palace is filled with tears, -

The new one is a cause for wailing, sadness, and fear:

Molossus 201 arrived, Andromache and Pyrrhus descendant, he wants to

865

to avenge my father's murder. Pylades harbors Orestes,

secretly, he is sent to distant foreign bregs.

So he reached the region where the temple was of the goddess Diana 202 .

There was a cruel custom 203: to sacrifice the unfortunate

bring all the strangers, and Orestes is already crowned with a sacred armband.

870

Sees the priestess preparing the sacrificial knife 204 according to custom;

fear drives away madness, near death returns

his mind , though not all 205, and forces him to seek salvation;

often Agamemnon calls in plaintive cries unhappy.

Hearing her father's name, Iphigenia asks::

875

"Who are you, victim 206 ?" Why do you summon Agamemnon?". The latter timidly replied: "I am the unfortunate Orestes, my parent -

the famous king Atreides, and I was born Clytemestra to him."

Without wasting any words, the intelligent priestess offers

to the face of Orestes, he makes his own knife and a test incision.

880

"The body of the trembling prisoner you, executioners, untie:

there is little blood in his heart, and the sacrifice will not be acceptable. 207"

Orestes drags him away from the altar and throws off his bandages.,

having removed all of them, he does not hide the fact that the priestess turned out to be a sister;

he sees, however, that his mind is damaged, that he is mad

885

I lost my rational speech. Night prayer cleanses

brother and leaves with him, the idol abducting Diana.

Just reached the motherland, Rumor instructs Molossus;

he accuses Orestes of a double crime; to Athens

he takes it away to be tried in accordance with the law.

890

208 elders ascend to the temple, for this purpose given by Minerva;

the offspring of Achilles rises and, inspired by love for his father,

I'm so hungry. - 200 Cp. Verg. Aen. VI. 603-606: "the couches... // are covered with pomp, and the feast is prepared with royal luxury //...but of the furies, the scariest one is immediately / / Lying at the table, not allowing you to touch the food, / / That... he raises his torch."

Molossus has arrived. - 201 See an overview of the content in the introductory article and notes to 807-819 and 832. For the origin of Molossus from Pyrrhus and Andromache, see Eurip. Andr. 1244-1248; Apold. Epit. VI. 12.

Where the temple was of the goddess Diana. Orestes 'meeting with Iphigenia in the Temple of Artemis (Diana) is entirely devoted to Euripides' tragedy "Iphigenia in Tauris"; see also Ovid. Pont. III. 2. 45-96; Hyg. 120. However, in all versions, Orestes is sent to Tauris by Apollo, so that the young man, who has already been acquitted by the Areopagus (Iph. T. 77-92, 961-967), will get rid of the persecution of the Erinii.

A cruel custom. - 203 Cf. Herod. IV. 103.

Preparing the sacrificial knife. - 204 In Euripides, this is done by special servants: Iph. T. 621-624.

It gives him back his mind, though not all of it. - 205 See Iph. Vol. 281-294, where the fit of insanity is caused by the intervention of the Erinii.

Who are you, the victim? - 206 Wed. instant response of Orestes with a long process of recognizing the sister and brother of Euripides: Iph. T. 495-5696 727-826, in which the situation develops literally on the edge of a knife. The same applies to Iphigenia's refusal to sacrifice and the complex plan to steal the statue of the goddess (ibid., 1029-1051, 1159-1202), to which Dracontius devotes 6 verses.

207 Article 881 is almost entirely repeated: Drac. Med. 246.

They go up to the temple. - 208 Dracontius confused the hill of the Areopagus, where the open-air trial was held, with the Parthenon - the temple of Athena on the Acropolis, completely unsuitable for a bloodshed trial. Perhaps Dracontius imagined the Parthenon by analogy with the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, where in some cases the Senate met; calling the judges elders (patres - senators), he reinforces this analogy. However, the trials did not take place in the temple of Jupiter either.

page 227

Thus begins 209: "My source, most noble people,

I declare Orestes guilty of criminal acts:

blood ties forgotten, neglected human rights,

895

He defiled the highest gods and spilled them with his own hand

mother's blood. But perhaps her mother had changed Atreida, -

What is Pyrrhus ' fault here? Did he look like Aegisthus?

Son of Achilles the Mighty, Asia's patron saint,

in the temple, he brought gifts - and was treacherously killed by Orestes.

900

He will say, perhaps, that the mother was criminal, impious,

twice guilty 210, to infidelity adding the murder of a spouse.

Let the culprit be put to death by a just judge,

but not with a filial sword 211 . Will he be ashamed of his new misdeeds

the one who started the killing spree with his mother? Strictly judge 212 ,

905

the noble branch of Cecrop 213, - it is fitting for Athens

revenge. There won't be enough death in bag 214 as usual;

here's what you need to do with this 215: everywhere izraniv iron,

members cut off separately, delaying the near death;

let him remain for a time a living corpse torn to pieces."

910

So he said, and fell silent. Orestes answers him:

"The noble people of the Danaians, the wise, the light of reason,

The highest glory of Athens, judges of sacred law,

I am glad that here, before you, my case is being dealt with:

you have wives, too, and you love them as you should,

915

Remember, I think, youth years 216 past your,

love for your brides, the promise of a close marriage.

I am grateful to the Higher gods that after fits of insanity

I am healthy again, and I am listening to the prosecution in the middle of the court benches.

With a clear mind I revere your judgment, which is by right sacred,

920

I distinguish between good and evil. Judge for yourself, venerable ones:

your verdict should not be about my personal case,

how much about the right of the gods who have shown their approval

I eat that, having cleansed me, they healed the suffering soul;

If I'd been unholy, I guess the gods wouldn't have saved me.

925

Mother protects Molossus, but he whitewashes me with it 217 :

209 The speeches of the parties in Articles 892-937 are constructed using traditional techniques of judicial eloquence. Speech of Molossus: 892: "seeking favor", which aims to win over the judges (cf. 87-93 and note); 893-896: the essence of the accusation (propositio); 897-899: statement of the circumstances of the case (narratio); 900-904: refutation of possible objections of the accused (refutatio); 904-909: conclusion demanding a measure of punishment. Orestes ' speech is less skilful, which can be attributed to his agitation: a man who is facing the death penalty, and moreover as cruel as the one proposed by Molossus, is not up to rhetoric. He needs to prepare the judges especially well-accordingly, "seeking favor" occupies about half of the speech (911-920); then there is a self-justification, in which Orestes calls on the judges to honor the will of the gods (921-935); two verses, 936 syllables, are occupied by the final request, again with an appeal to the decision of the gods.

Twice as guilty. - 210 Wed. 428 el.

But not with a filial sword. - 211 Cf. Eurip. El. 1244-1245; Or. 500-503.

Judge strictly. - 212 Cp. Stat. Theb. XII. 569 ate.

Notable branch of Cecrop. - 213 See 534 and approx.

Death in a sack- 214 anachronism: this type of execution was provided for in Roman law for those guilty of murdering their parents. The criminal was supposed to be whipped until he bled with rods, then sewed up in a bag with a dog, a rooster, a snake and a monkey and thrown into the sea. If there was no sea nearby, give it to wild animals (Digests. XLVIII. 9.9). See also Cic. Rose. Amer. XXVI. 71; luven. VIII. 213-217, with the proviso that Orestes should not have been subject to such execution, since he was avenging his father.

this should be done. - 215 Wed. 477 el., 726-728. For a massacre of political opponents that resembles quartering, see Sen. De ira. III. 18. 1; Valer. Max. IX. 2. 1; Flor. II. 9. 26.

Youth years. - 216 Cp. Stat. Theb. IV. 354.

217 St. 925 cf. is considered by some researchers to be an interpolation that interrupts the course of Orestes 'reasoning about the participation of the gods in his work; therefore, they are proposed to be moved either after 930 (which is prevented by the conscious repetition of the verb "reproaches" in 930 and 931), or after 933 (which has much more reason, since it allows Orestes to summarize both murder of his mother and Pyrrhus).

page 228

the murderer deserves revenge, - the murdered father is not worthy?

Is there such a blasphemer, a madman, who will decide

accuse the father's gods, whose power is perfect to the end?

Let him accuse the gods, let him call them to fight,

930

they are accused of wrongdoing, starting a war with the giants 218 .

Let him reproach me, too - why the fits of insanity?

They were a sad concern, not a punishment for guilt:

the bitterness of the whole soul heaves, the heart in the chest depresses.

Pyrrhus was the thief, and I was the avenger of theft, -

935

mortal odin blames the one who is favored by the gods.

Guardians of the law, please acquit him with a sentence,

who is already purified by the gods, is saved by a benevolent fate."

Said and modest silence language curbed talkative.

And the trial begins with the consideration of the acts of Orestes.

940

Pebbles there according to custom are different they were thrown into the urn 219 :

white people were allowed to live, red people were awarded death.

The votes were counted - it turns out that there is no verdict:

the number was equal to 220 white and red stones.

But Minerva had a small white stone in her hand;

945

in favor of Orestes puts; exclaim: "The guilty one is acquitted."

Notable judges pronounce such a sentence about him:

"If only the decisions of the gods could be discussed by humans,

the Orestes case should have been dealt with in the usual way 221;

the will of the gods is declared to us; the mercy of heaven is declared to us

950

not subject to review; may legal disputes cease!

Who would recklessly want to break the laws of heaven?

Paris 222, who judged the three goddesses, did not escape punishment,

Tiresias, Jupiter's chosen judge, was not spared either;

Pyrrhus the kidnapper died, struck down by a just sword;

955

if he is killed in the temple, then the power is completely perfect 223

powerful gods, and punish them when they want. Let it be easy

Orestes will return to the house , and there will be no accusation against him."

So it ended 24 . The people of Orestes greet with a shout,

with the joy of a friend, only he left the court, Pylades accepts;

960

sisters on both sides 225 embrace the desired brother,

Starting a war with the giants. - 218 See 242 and note. Cicero spoke about the futility of such aspirations: "To fight like giants with the gods - what is it but to rebel against nature?" (Cato. V).

219 st. 941 sl. Pebbles... different ones were thrown into the trash can. - Wed. Ovid. Metam. XV. 41 sl.:

It was an ancient custom there, with white and black pebbles,

Those who are thrown into the trash can must decide whether to execute or pardon them.

Dracontius replaced the black stones with red ones, apparently to bring them closer to the color of blood.

- According to Aeschylus (Eum. 734-753), the number of votes turned out to be equal, since Athena immediately laid down her stone in defense of Orestes and he was acquitted: according to Greek and Roman criminal law, if the votes were equal, the verdict was passed in favor of the accused (see Sen. Epist. LXXXI. 26).

In the usual way- 221 that is, with the summoning of witnesses, the announcement of the relevant laws, etc., all this is replaced by the mercy of heaven.

Paris did not escape punishment- 222 that is, by taking part in the dispute between the three goddesses and giving preference to Aphrodite, he brought war to Troy, in which he himself died. Tiresias was summoned by Zeus to settle a dispute between him and Hera over which half gets the most pleasure during coitus. By claiming that men share one - tenth and women nine-tenths of pleasure, Tiresias provoked the wrath of Hera, who deprived him of his sight. This plot was already known from the "Catalog of Women", the author of which was considered Hesiod. See Ovid. Metam. III. 319-338; Apoid. III. 6. 7; Hyg. 75. Both the examples given by Dracontius cannot be considered successful: neither Paris nor Tiresias committed bloodshed. Unless the author wanted to say that it is better for mortals to obey the decision of the gods than to challenge them.

Power is perfect to the end. - 223 Page 928.

So it ended. - 224 Wed. Stat. Theb. XII. 587 ate.

Sisters- 225 Elektra and Iphigenia. Both are present contrary to tradition: the first of them was not supposed to leave Mycenae, the second was appointed to be in the temple with the statue after returning to Greece.

page 229

and the four of them rush back to Mycenae with joy;

here the returned wealth of the 226th palace is filled with the royal one.

The gods entrusted by the will of the Thunderer Father

227 total power over the earth and over the sky, over the air, over the sea,

965

gentle honesty asks you 228, kind innocence asks you

and good compassion, family Joy prays to you,

The human race, blood Ties, holy from time immemorial,

Ties at home conjure you, A union between relatives:

enough of the villainy of Lemnos and the Danaids 229 that they managed

970

turn your wedding hall into a bonfire, and the deeds of Thyestes 230 ,

and endless sins that it's a shame to talk about;

here and in Mycenae disgraces the triple tragedy 231 glory

the Greeks; spare the world 232, which is all in your power,

you will turn the unfortunate Pelasgians away from a new cycle of crime.

Artemis in the Arephenid Halae, in the south of Attica. If the appearance of the first of them here can be explained by the fact that Dracontius brought Orestes to Athens almost eight years ago, but still continued to live there, then the presence of Iphigenia is not motivated in any way. On both sides. - Literally: "right and left". See Claudian. De nupt. Honor. (X). 100-101: "The throne was flanked on both sides by the Idali sisters."

Returned wealth - 226 apparently, the one that was taken to Athens: 289 sl., 311 ate.

The gods I'm trusted with... power. 227-Cf. Ovid. Metam. XV. 861-870 (although the composition of the gods is quite different).

Gentle Honesty asks you. - 228 Cf. Claudian. De bello Gild. (XV). 404: "Tainted Honesty asks you." For a similar reference to the personified gods, see Drac. Med. 570-572:

Dark Lust, Fierce Madness, you cruel Sin,

Furies, Tribulation, Wickedness, Death, Burial, Envy,

Leave the mortals and grant forgiveness to the miserable world.

Cf. ibid. personifications of Cupid's companions: 161-163, 263-266.

Enough of the villainy of Lemnos. - 229 See 432-434 and approx. The Danaids are the daughters of Danaus, who, in order to avoid marrying their Egyptian cousins, all but one of them slaughtered their suitors on the first night. Suppl. 319-340; Ovid. Her. XIV. 1-36; Apold. II. 1. 4-5; Hyg. 168. Turn the marriage hall into a bonfire. - Wed. 451.

230 By the deeds of Tiestes may be meant the seduction of Aerope, and his "feast" - also, though involuntary, but a crime, and the possession of Pelopia. See 485-487 and note Hyg. 86-88, as well as the introductory article.

In Mycenae, a triple tragedy - 231 "the feast of Tiestes", the murder of Agamemnon, the revenge of Orestes.

Spare that world. - 232 Cp. Drac. Med. 572 sq., 588.

page 230

permanent address of the article: https://dlib.eastview.com/browse/doc/32851

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
Author:

ASGE-Archaeological Collection of the State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

IAK-News of the Archaeological Commission, St. Petersburg

IRAIMK-Proceedings of the Russian Academy of the History of Material Culture. Leningrad

KSIA of the USSR Academy of Sciences-Short reports of the Institute of Archeology of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Moscow

MAIET - Materials on the archeology, history, and ethnography of Tavria. Simferopol

MIA-Materials and research on the archeology of the USSR. Moscow

NS GIM-Numismatics and sphragistics. State Historical Museum. Moscow

NSf-Numismatics and sphragistics. Moscow

NE-Numismatics and epigraphy. Moscow

ONU - Social Sciences in Uzbekistan. Tashkent

PAV-Petersburg Archaeological Bulletin, St. Petersburg

PA - Russian Archeology. Moscow

SA-Soviet Archeology. Moscow

SGE-Messages of the State Hermitage Museum. Leningrad (Saint Petersburg)

AJA - American Journal of Archaeology, Archaeological Institute of America. New York

AJPh - American Journal of Philology. Baltimore

ANRW - Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt. Berlin - New York, 1972 - ...

ВАСЕ - The Bulletin of the Australian Centre for Egyptology. Sidney

BIFAO - Bulletin de l' Institut francais d' Archeologie orientale. Le Caire

BSEG - Bulletin de la Societe d'Egyptologie. Geneve

BSA - Annual of the British School at Athens. London

CIL - Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, consilio et auctoritate Academiae litterarum regiae Borussicae editum. l Berlin, 1863-...

CQ - Classical Quarterly. Oxford

CRAI - Comptes rendus des seances de l' Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Paris CVA - Corpus Vasorum Atticorum

EA - Egyptian Archaeology (Bulletin of the Egypt Exploration Society). London

GM - Gottinger Miszellen. Gottingen

IG - Inscriptiones Graecae. Berlin, 1903 - ...

JAOS - Journal of the American Oriental Society. New York - New Haven

JEA - The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. London

JHS - The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies. London

JIES - The Journal of Indo-European Studies

JRAS - Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bombay

JRS - Journal of Roman Studies, Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies. London

MDAFA - Memoires de la Delegation archeologique francaise en Afghanistan. Paris

MDAI(A) - Mitteilungen des deutschen archaologischen Instituts. Athenishe Abteilung. Berlin

NC - The Numismatic Chronicle, the Royal Numismatic Society. London

PA - I . Kirchner. Prosopographia Attica. V. 1-2. V., 1901-1903

PM-B. Porter, R. L. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings. V. I-VII. Oxf., 1927-1974

RE - Paulу's Real-Encyclopadie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Neue Bearbeitung. Begonnen von G. Wissowa, hrsg. von W. Kroll

SAGA - Studien zur Archaologie und Geschichte Altagyptens Heidelberg

SAK - Studien zur Agyptischen Kultur. Hamburg

SDHI - Studia et documenta historia et iuris. Roma

ZPE - Zeitschrift flir Papyrologie und Epigraphik. Bonn

ZSS - Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiffung flir Rechtsgeschichte, romanistische Abteilung. Weimar


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