Libmonster ID: MD-899

Author: N. A. MOKHOV

D. I. ANTONYUK, I. L. SABADYREV. Respyndiria si studiermarksism-leninismului yn Moldova. "Kartya Moldovenyaske". Chisinau. 1969. 382 pages. The print run is 3000 copies. Price 1 rub. 40 kopecks.

The book is devoted to the history of the spread of Marxism-Leninism in Moldova from the time of the appearance of Karl Marx's Capital in Chisinau in 1872 to the present day.

The complex ways of spreading the revolutionary theory here were determined by the peculiarities of the historical development of Bessarabia. Up to the beginning of the XX century. Bessarabia was a backward national suburb of tsarist Russia and served as a place of exile for revolutionaries; at the beginning of the twentieth century, it was an area of great agrarian uprisings and the growth of the national liberation and nationalist movement. Chisinau of those years - a major center of trade and crafts-went down in the history of Russian socio-political life as a city where one of the largest underground printing houses of the Leninist newspaper Iskra worked, and at the same time as a citadel of the Russian Black Hundreds. By the end of 1917, in difficult political conditions, the Bolsheviks of Bessarabia had won over the masses and established the power of the Soviets.

It was Bessarabia that became the first Soviet territory to be subjected to foreign intervention. In January - February 1918, the Romanian royal troops, with the assistance of the imperialist countries of the West and the Russian counter-revolution, defeated the emerging Soviet detachments and occupied Bessarabia. The Soviets were liquidated, and countless communists and non-partisan Soviet activists died at the hands of the White Guards and in the dungeons of the Romanian Okhrana. The following 22 years (1918 - 1940) were a dark period in the history of most of the Moldovan people. For occupied Bessarabia, this was a time of economic stagnation, decline, and the entire state apparatus of political suppression was aimed at eradicating the revolutionary worldview and instilling bourgeois-nationalist ideology. For the same part of the Moldavian people who lived on the left bank of the Dniester, these were the years of building a new society, creating and developing the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic extremely quickly, and spreading a new culture and scientific worldview everywhere. And only after the liberation of Bessarabia in June 1940. because of the yoke of the Romanian occupiers, the reunification of the Moldavian people and the formation of the Moldavian SSR, the time of rapid socialist construction has come for the entire Moldavian people, the time of the victory of the scientific Marxist-Leninist worldview.

The authors of the book, based on the existing literature and independent research, show the spread of Marxism in Moldova at different stages of its historical development. Before the socialist revolution, the revolutionary ideology steadily penetrated Moldavia despite all the obstacles of the tsarist regime. The book examines various ways of introducing the teachings of Marx-Engels - Lenin to Moldova, as well as spreading revolutionary literature. A thorough analysis of both the information known in the literature about the distribution of Marxist publications and the information found by the authors in various archives gave them the opportunity to draw a concrete picture of how Lenin's dream of providing all revolutionary circles with the necessary literature was realized. A significant role in this was played by the Chisinau underground printing house of the Leninist newspaper Iskra, which during the year of operation managed to produce many leaflets and brochures and completely reprinted No. 10 of the Iskra newspaper with a circulation of 1,500 copies. The authors show that, although the Bessarabian province was not a major revolutionary center of tsarist Russia, it had a very significant fund of revolutionary literature, both published illegally in Russia and imported from abroad.

The authors review the activities of all the revolutionary circles and individuals known to them. However, it is not clear why they do not even mention the activities of the Iskra "United Protest Group", which in 1901 fought against economists in Chisinau and issued leaflets (NN1, 4 and 5 of these leaflets have been preserved), which were positively evaluated by the editorial board of the Iskra newspaper. It was all the more worth remembering about this group, since our historical literature does not have an objective assessment of it (its technical characteristics).-

page 161

if they describe it as a Leninist group, then they ignore it). The authors of the special study had their say on this issue.

The book examines in detail the process of forming a Marxist-Leninist worldview among the workers of left-bank Moldavia during the period from the establishment of Soviet power to 1940. It shows how during the years of socialist construction, during the cultural revolution carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party, Marxism became the dominant ideology in the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, and especially examines the history of translations into Moldovan of the main works of the founders of Marxism-Leninism, which was the most important step in the ideological education of the working masses.

The situation with the spread of the scientific worldview in Bessarabia was quite different. The 22 years of the Boyar-Romanian occupation were simultaneously a period of intense struggle between the democratic forces for reunification with the Soviet Homeland, against the restored capitalist relations in the region. Although Soviet power did not last long in Bessarabia (in 1917-1918), during this time the idea of the eternal power of landlords and capitalists was undermined, and the motto "private property is sacred" lost its halo. The book shows the enormous and effective underground activities of communists in promoting revolutionary ideology: it tells about the work of circles, about meetings and demonstrations, about the printing of literature, about the work of many illegal libraries, and provides data on political trials taken from the archives of the Romanian Siguranza (okhrana). All this clearly shows that the new ideology has deep roots in the minds of the people.

However, in our opinion, the authors paid very little attention to the propaganda work of the Romanian bourgeois parties. The bourgeoisie mobilized all its forces to refute the Bolshevik ideology: the church, newspapers, schools, "fiction"; it resorted to slander and unrestrained great-power Romanian nationalist propaganda in order to force the working people to forget about new ideas, discredit Marxist ideology and revive faith in the inviolability of the rule of bourgeois-landlord ideology. Although the authors report that in 1937 alone about"3.7 million reactionary magazines and newspapers" were distributed in Bessarabia (p. 118), and cite the names of some ideologists of anti-Sovietism, in our opinion, more should be said about the forms of bourgeois propaganda. After all, this kind of propaganda was conducted on a large scale. And if it did not give a noticeable result, then this is not due to a lack of material and human resources. The fact is that, despite the persecution of Marxist ideology, its position was steadily strengthened. A more detailed examination of the question of bourgeois-nationalist propaganda would force the authors to find out the reasons for its influence on the most backward strata of the population, which sometimes affected even after the restoration of Soviet power. It would be worth showing more concretely how small underground Marxist circles successfully fought reactionary propaganda.

The success of Marxist propaganda in Bessarabia was noted in its resolution of the Fifth Congress of the Communist Party of Romania (1930). Even Siguranza had to admit it, whose report for 1929 stated that "communist propaganda in illegal circles is developing successfully" (p.140). Siguranza repeatedly noted the people's sympathy for communism: "The people say that the Romanian state has given nothing to the Bessarabians, and therefore the workers, peasants, and young people sympathize with the Bolsheviks", "the inhabitants of Bessarabia expect those who will come from across the Dniester", "Bessarabia should be united with the Moldavian ASSR" (p. 196), etc. The material presented in the book provides convincing grounds for concluding that Marxist-Leninist ideas " penetrated deeply into the consciousness of the broad working masses of Bessarabia... they were made the worldview of workers, peasants and intellectuals, progressive students and students" (p. 195).

Referring to the spread and propaganda of Marxism in the Moldavian SSR in 1940-1968, the authors describe various forms and methods of studying Marxist-Leninist ideology that were used by the party at different stages of the history of Soviet Moldavia. They convincingly show how the Marxist-Leninist doctrine in Soviet conditions became a powerful force that mobilizes "the working people to fulfill their tasks both in terms of production, as well as in the field of politics and culture" (p.342).


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N. A. MOKHOV, Historical science in the USSR. Reviews: D. I. ANTONYUK, I. L. SABADYREV. DISSEMINATION AND STUDY OF MARXISM-LENINISM IN MOLDOVA // Chisinau: Library of Moldova (LIBRARY.MD). Updated: 11.06.2024. URL: (date of access: 17.07.2024).

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